Party caucuses and the whipping system of Parliament

The following paper was presented by Mr Cletus Avoka, MP for Zebilla and former majority leader of the Parliament of Ghana, at a post-election seminar for the Parliament of Uganda held in July 2016.


It traces the whipping system of Parliaments deeply rooted in the Westminster parliamentary democratic systems as a strategic measure of political parties influencing decisions in Parliament. It delves into the history of the whipping system, and the functions and qualities of a Whip. It also draws on examples within the Commonwealth and in particular what pertains in the Parliament of Ghana.


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